Europe / Muslims in Media Statistics / UK

UK Muslim Statistics Archive [pre 2003]

For details of academic papers, reports and books relating to Muslims in Britain after 2003 click this link

Muslim Statistics Archive [pre 2003]
  • How many British Muslims?
  • Age, Gender and family demographics
  • Health
  • Disadvantage, Poverty, Unemployment
  • Home ownership & quality
  • Education
  • Trade, Industry & Commerce
  • Politics and political participation
  • Religious Discrimination
  • Hajj & Umra Travel
  • Halal meat and food consumption
  • Mosques
  • Charities

I.How many British Muslims?

Office for National Statistics
General Register Office, Scotland
  • The Muslim population of England & Wales is 1.54 million. The Muslim
  • population of Scotland is about 40,000.
  • Total Muslim population 1.6 million.
  • The Local Authority Districts with the highest Muslim populations are:
  • Tower Hamlets – 71,000 (36% of population))
  • Newham – 59,000 (24%)
  • Blackburn – 27,000 (19%)
  • Bradford – 75,000 (16%)
  • Waltham Forest – 33,000 (15%)
  • Luton – 27,000 (15%)
  • Birmingham – 140,000 (14%)
  • Hackney – 28,000 (14%)
  • Pendle – 12,000 (13%)
  • Slough – 16,000 (13%)
  • Brent – 32,000 (12%)
  • Redbridge – 29,000 (12%)
  • Westminster – 21,000 (12%)
  • Camden – 23,000 (12%)
  • Haringey – 24,000 (11%)
The Guardian, June 17, 2002, �British Muslims� series – A map of Muslim Britain
  • Muslim population 1.8 million (3% of total British population)
  • The Muslim population of London � 1 million (total 7.2 million); Birmingham – 150,000 (1 million) � this includes the world’s biggest expatriate Kashmiri population
  • Scotland 60,000 (33,000 in Glasgow); Wales 50,000; N. Ireland 4000
The Financial Times, January 23, 2002, quoting Professor M Anwar, head of the Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick
  • 1.8 million British Muslims
  • About 10,000 British Muslims are Afro-Caribbean or white reverts
Analysis commissioned by the Muslim Council of Britain in 2001 – based on analysis of the 1999 electoral roll using 800 ‘standard’ Muslim first name and surname combinations.
  • 340,000 households. The 1991 Census suggests the Pakistani/Bangladeshi household is 4.9 (Table 8.3, �Household & family structure among ethnic minority groups�, by M. Murphy, in �Ethnicity in the 1991 Census, Vol. 1, HMSO, 1996) � so total population of 1.7 million.
The Runnymede Trust, �Islamophobia � a challenge for us all�, 1997
  • 1.5 million Muslims: Pakistani origin 610,000; Bangladeshi 200,000; Indian 160,000; Arab and African 350,000; others 180,000

click here for pie chart

Population Trends, Autumn 2001, ONS: ‘The sizes and characteristics of ethnic populations of Great Britain – latest estimates’
  • Ethnicity data: Pakistani origin – 675,000; Bangladeshi – 257,000 Indian origin – 984,000- say 30% Muslim – total South Asian Muslim population estimate:1.2 million
London Chamber of Commerce report – December 2001
  • 249,872 Pakistani and Bangladeshi live in Greater London area.
  • There are about 150,000 Turks in the UK, of whom 90% in London
The Changing Geography of South Asians in Bradford’ Dr. Deborah Phillips, University of Leeds, 2001
  • The 1991 Census indicated that Bradford’s South Asian population numbered about 65,450 making up 14 per cent of the city’s total population. 48,900 of these were of Pakistani/Kashmiri origin. This represented the second highest concentration of people of Pakistani origin in Britain.
  • The latest estimates (from Bradford MDC) indicate that the South Asian population has grown considerably over the last decade to 94,250 and that people of Pakistani/Kashmiri origin number about 73,900. The South Asian population therefore now represents about 19 per cent of the total population of Bradford.


II. Age, Gender and family demographics

1 Office for National Statistics – 7 May 2003
  • – 33.8 of Muslims are aged 0-15 years (national average is 20.2%); 18.2% are aged 16-24 (national average is 10.9%)
  • – 50% of Muslims were born in the United Kingdom
  • – 60,000 Muslims are of Eastern European origin
  • – 54.5% of Pakistanis and 46.6% of Bangladeshis were born in the UK
2 Population Trends, Autumn 2001, ONS: ‘The sizes and characteristics of ethnic populations of Great Britain – latest estimates’
  • Per cent distribution by age
    0 – 14 years  34%
    15 – 29 years  31%
    30 – 44 years  20%
    0 – 14 years 40%
    15 – 29 years 29 %30
    33- 44 years  18%
    0 – 14 years  23%
    15 – 29 years  24%
    30 – 44 years 27%
  • Gender ratios
    Pakistani & Bangladeshi
    Generally symmetric except for the 30 – 44 age band where there are approx 2 – 3 % and 4-5% respectively more males than females
3 The Guardian, September 21, 2001
  • Half the ethnic minority community was born in the UK
  • Nearly 90% of south Asian children live with both their parents, compared with 40% of black children.
  • Half the white population is under 38, but half the minority ethnic population is under 27
4 Population Trends, Summer 2002, ONS: �Attitudes towards ideal family size of different ethnic/nationality groups in Great Britain, France & Germany�
  • Of 100 respondents from Indian and Pakistani ethnic groups interviewed (random selection). 46 percent of young British Pakistanis and 48 per cent of young British Indians want four or more children, compared to just 19 per cent of white people.
5 The Guardian, September 13, 2000, reporting on the survey of over-60s published by the ONS, 12/9/2000 (Author Maria Evandrou of Kings College, London)
  • Nearly 250,000 over -60s from ethnic minority groups and this number was set to swell as these groups aged
6 North West Lancashire Health Authority (April 1999) – analysis of patient registration database for Preston
  • 50% of South Asians were aged below the age of 24 as opposed to 30% of non-South Asians; though 12% of the local population, the South Asian proportoin in the 0-4 age group was 20%
7 Ethnic Minorities in Britain, Modood & Berthoud, PSI, 1997 – Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities 1994;Chapter 9,’Culture & Identity’
  • Parental decision over marriage partner – in Muslim men in the 16-34 range: 49%; in Muslim women in the 16-34, range 67%
8 Ethnicity 2002 ed. Amanda White, ONS
  • 38% of Bangladeshis are under 16. This was double the proportion of the White ethnic group.
  • Average size of households: Bangladeshi – 4.7, Pakistani – 4.2, Indians – 3.3, White – 2.3
  • 15% of Pakistani families were lone parent families (in the White population it is 23% and Black Caribbean 54%)


III. Health

1 ‘Caring for Muslim Patients’ by Dr Aziz Shaikh
Click here for presentation – mainly based on 1997 data (copyright Dr Aziz
  • Perinatal mortality rate amongst Pakistani mothers is 16%, twice UK average
  • Respiratory symptoms amongst Muslims is higher than Hindus or Sikhs (18% compared to 14%)
  • Diagnosed heart disease or severe chest pain is 18% amongst Pakistanis, 14% in Sikhs, and 8% in Hindus
  • Reported long-standing illness is 20% among Muslims, compared to around 16% for Hindus and Sikhs
2 BMA News, May 25 2002
  • 44% of men of Bangladeshi origin smoke, compared with 29 per cent of the general male population
  • 56% of women of Bangladeshi origin aged over 55 chew tobacco
3 Ethnic Minorities in Britain, Modood & Berthoud, PSI, 1997 – Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities 1994;Chapter 7,’Health & Health Services’ – Jmes Nazroo
  • Indians, African Asians and Chinese had similar levels of health to whites, while Caribbeans, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis had worse health than whites.
4 ‘Ethnicity, health and health behaviour: a study of older groups’, NHS Health Development Agency, 2000
  • The difference in reported health status between white and ethnic minoritygroups was greatest for older age groups: Bangladeshis in their 40s and 50s were more likely to report poor health than any other ethnic group; 48% had ‘not good health compared with 16% Indians and only 10% of white adults.
5 The Health Survey of Minority Ethnic Groups, Health Survey for England 1999, Department of Health,
  • The mean number of prescribed drugs per person was 1 for the general population, but 2.04 for Bangladeshi men. While both men and women had a similar mean number for the general population, for Pakistani men and women it was 1.26 and 1.42 respectively.
  • Self-reported diabetes among Bangladeshi men and women is six times more than the general population.


IV. Disadvantage, Poverty, Unemployment

1 The Guardian, June 21, 2002, British Muslims series, ‘From Bangladesh to Brick Lane’
  • 37% of the population of London’s poorest borough, Tower Hamlets, is Bengali
2 New Policy Institute
  • Bangladeshis and Pakistanis are twice as likely not to have a bank or building society account than the rest of the population.
3 BBC ‘Women and Society reported on 28 May 2002 women_and_society.stm �28 May 2002
  • Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are the poorest groups in the country. Just two in 10 of these women are active in the job market, compared with seven in 10 black Caribbean and white women.
  • According to Heidi Safia Mirza of the Centre for Racial Equality Studies at Middlesex University �that is not to say that these [Muslim] women are shackled to the kitchen sink….These figures don’t record home-working, time spent on family-run businesses, and unpaid work, so the idea that they don’t participate isn’t very helpful. Yet still people make the assumption that they are stuck at home being oppressed by their men folk.”
4 ‘Black and Underpaid, study launched at the TUC’s Black Workers’ Conference, 12 April 2002 Reported on BBC
  • Pakistani and Bangladeshi men earn �150 per week less than white men, while the difference is �115 for Caribbean men and �116 for Africans.
5 Performance & Innovation Unit, Cabinet Office – Ethnic Minorities in the Labour Market – reported in The Guardian, February 2002
  • Muslim men of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin are disproportionately unemployed compared to other Asians. Even after allowances for education and residential area, Pakistani Muslims are three times more likely to be jobless than Hindus are. Indian Muslims are twice as likely to be unemployed than Indian Hindus are.
  • After adjustments for training and family circumstances, ethnic minority men earn less than white workers. For women the picture is different. Pakistani women earn �34 a week less than white women, but Indian and Caribbean women earn more – �14 and �30 respectively.
6 The Guardian, November 25, 2001
  • In Rochdale, 96 per cent of Pakistani community and 89 per cent of Bangladeshis live in the five inner wards, among the most deprived areas in the North-West.
7 The Guardian, September 13, 2000, reporting on the survey of over-60s published by the ONS, 12/9/2000(Author Maria Evandrou of Kings College, London)
  • Older Pakistani and Bangladeshi people were almost three times as likely to live in a household without a phone than white, Indian or black Caribbean older people
  • On an index of multiple deprivation, the survey found 47% of Pakistani and Bangladeshi pensioners experienced three or four times more types of disadvantage, compared to 42% of black Caribbean, 26% Irish, 19% white and 13% Indian
8 National Statistics, Labour Force Survey, Spring 2000
  • In employment, Bangladeshis and Pakistanis are two and a half times more likely than the white population to be unemployed and nearly three times more likely to be in low pay
9 Department for Work and Pensions. Households Below Average Income 1994/5 � 2000/01
  • Over two-thirds of Bangladeshi and Pakistani households (68%) are living below the poverty line (incomes below 60% of the median, after housing costs). This compares with just under a quarter (23%) for all households.
  • Just under three-quarters of Bangladeshi and Pakistani children (73%) are living in households below the poverty line (60% of median income). This compares with under a third (31%) for children in all households.
10 Policy Studies Institute, �Ethnic Minorities in Britain: diversity and disadvantage� by T. Modood et. al, 1997
  • Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are living in serious poverty. The report found that 80 per cent live in households with incomes below half the national average.
11 University of Huddersfield, �The development needs of the Pakistani community in Huddersfield�, 1997
  • There is high social deprivation in areas of high Pakistani concentration
  • A matter of concern is the level of unemployment amongst young Pakistanis, compared to other ethnic groups
12 Ethnic Minorities in Britain, Modood & Berthoud, PSI, 1997 – Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities 1994;Chapter 4,’Employment’
  • The percentage of economically active persons without work was around 15 per cent of whites – Bangladeshi and Pakistani rates were 42 & 38 per cent respectively
13 The Changing Geography of South Asians in Bradford’ Dr. Deborah Phillips, University of Leeds, 2001
  • There has been change in the pattern of South Asian residence over the 1990s, with evidence of suburbanisation. However, significant deprivation persists in the areas of high South Asian concentration, especially for the Muslim population of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. The indications are that some are trapped in poorer areas by their economic circumstances and that social housing away from the inner city is not perceived as a particularly attractive alternative. Clustering on the basis of ethnicity remains important, even for the younger generation of South Asians. It is sustained by positive community links, traditions and a sense of ethnic identity. It is also maintained by a fear of racial harassment and isolation.
14 Ethnicity 2002 ed. Amanda White, ONS
  • Over 40% of young Bangladeshi men are unemployed. The comparable unemployment rate for young White men was 12%
  • Pakistani and Bangladeshi households were much more reliant on earnings from self-employment than other groups. Half of the self-employed Pakistanis were in the transport and communication industry.
  • Pakistanis and Bangladeshis were much more likely to be living on low incomes. Almost 60% of the 1 million people in this group were living in low-income households before housing costs were deducted. This increased to 68% after housing costs


V. Home ownership & quality

1 ‘Ethnicity in the 1991 Census’ Volume 2 edited by Ceri Peach (HMSO); table (5.12) ‘Percentage of households by tenure and ethnicity’. 77 per cent of Pakistani households are composed of owner-occupiers. They are overwhelmingly concentrated in terraced housing. About 45% of Bangladeshis are owner-occupier. Another report by Peach states that 43% of Bangladeshis live in council or housing association properties – 50% higher than the national average.
2 The Guardian, September 13, 2000, reporting on the survey of over-60s published by the ONS, 12/9/2000(Author Maria Evandrou of Kings College, London) 28% of older Pakistani and Bangladeshi people were in households without central heating and which were more likely to suffer from dampness and condensation 38% lived in overcrowded homes with more than one person per room
3 The Guardian, 5 December 2002, reporting survey conducted by Deborah Phillips of Leeds University into ethnic minority housing trends Data from 435 Asian households and interviews found that there is no evidence that Asians are forming ghettos in Northern cities as a matter of choice.
” Our findings show the affect of estate agents treating Asians unfairly, and worries on the part of the Asian population about isolation if they move, reinforced by fears of trouble. One in six of survey respondents said they had experienced harrassment intheir neighbourhood, even though they had opted to live in areas they saw as safe.”


VI. Education

1 The Guardian, December 12, 2001
  • How many faith schools are there? The State sector comprises 6,384 primary schools and 589 secondary schools: 4,716 Church of England, 2,110 Roman Catholic, 27 Methodist, 32 Jewish, four Muslim, two Sikh, one Greek Orthodox, and one Seventh Day Adventist.
2 The Guardian, June 17, 2002, British Muslims series
  • In 2000, 30% of Pakistani students gained five or more good GCSEs, compared with 50% in the population as a whole
3 National Literacy Trust
  • Black and Indian pupils have achieved a significant improvement in GCSE results over the past two years. From 1998 – 2000, the percentage of African Caribbean youngsters achieving five or more A*-C grades has risen from 29 to 37, while the proportion of Indian pupils getting top grades has leapt from 54% to 62%. A group defined as “other Asian” which includes Chinese pupils, also showed impressive gains. Last year, 70% got five or more top passes, up from 61% two years ago. However, a fall in achievement among Bangladeshi pupils from 33% to 30% and a below average rise in the performance of Pakistani children means the gap between the highest and lowest achieving ethnic groups has widened.
4 OFSTED – Inspection of Bradford Local Education Authority – May 2000
  • “About a third of the pupil population are of minority ethnic heritage, mostly Muslims of Pakistani and Bangladeshi background. Some schools have a population which is almost exclusively of bilingual ethnic minority origin, whereas others are almost entirely white
  • The district’s education authority is ranked 148 out 150 in the country
  • “the LEA serves the district very poorly ….the schools have been underfunded for several years.”
  • “in the school survey 51 per cent of first schools and 70 per cent of the middle and upper schools described the effectiveness with which the LEA evaluates services to schools as poor or worse”
  • “In secondary schools (including upper schools and middle) only 45% of schools were judged good or very good compared with 70% nationally”
  • “Issues such as ….raising the standards of ethnic minority groups…[lack] a consistent approach”
  • “the LEA did not meet its targets for literacy in 1999”
5 The Universities & Colleges Admission Service (UCAS) annual data set for 2001
  • The most popular subject groups for Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin boys were ‘mathematical sciences & informatics’. Among girls it was ‘social studies’ and ‘business and administration’.
6 ‘Help or Hindrance? Higher education and the rute to ethnic equality’ by Tariq Modood and Michael Shiner, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 2002
  • A random sample of 1000 candidates from each of the main ethnic groups in the UK has found strong evidence of bias against ethnic minority candidates within the ‘old’ (i.e. pre-1992) universities. For example, while the probability of a white candidate receiving an initial offer was 0.75, for a Pakistani or Bangladeshi candidate with equivalent qualifications, the probability dropped to 0.57. This trend does not apply to the ‘new’ or post-1992 universities.
7 Ethnic Minorities in Britain, Modood & Berthoud, PSI, 1997 – Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities 1994;Chapter 9,’Culture & Identity’
  • 48% of Muslims supported faith schools within the state sector, compared to 26% of Church of England (White) respondents, & 13% Hindu respondents.
8 Ethnicity 2002 ed. Amanda White, ONS
  • Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are most likely to be unqualified. Nearly half of Bangladeshi men and women had no qualifications. Anmong Pakistanis, 27% of men and 40% of women had no qualifications.


VII. Trade, Industry & Commerce

1 The Guardian, June 21, 2002, British Muslims series, ‘From Bangladesh to Brick Lane’
  • There are 8,500 Indian restaurants, of which roughly 7,200 are Bengali
2 The contribution of Asian businesses to London’s economy – a report prepared by the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry’, December 2001, published by the Greater London Authority
  • One in ten of London’s 250,000 businesses are Asian owned. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis own 2,450 businesses.
3 The Guardian, Feb 1, 2002 – based on a report published by Datamonitor
  • Britain may have well over 5000 Muslim millionaires with liquid assets of more than �3.6bn. Their wealth will make them among the most sought after customers by Britain’s financial services sector�the market for Islamic [sharia-compliant] finance in the UK is set to grow hugely.


VIII. Politics and political participation

1 The Guardian, March 16, 2004, Survey of British Muslims & integration issues
  • Telephone interviews of 500 Muslimes indicate that support for Labour is waning. Other findings relate to anti-terrorism legislation, Iraq, Muslim Schools.
2 The Guardian, June 17, 2002, British Muslims series
  • There are two Muslim MPs: Khalid Mahmood (Labour, Birmingham Perry Barr) and Mohammed Sarwar (Labour, Glasgow Govan)
  • One Muslim MEP: Bashir Khanbhai (Conservative, Eastern Region)
3 The Muslim Council of Britain, reported in The Muslim News, March 30, 2001, General Election Supplement
  • Top 10 constituencies with largest Muslim voter estimate: B’ham, Sparkbrook & Small Heath; Bradford West; Bethnal Green & Bow; Birmingham, Ladywood; East Ham; Blackburn; Poplar & Canning Town; Bradford North; Ilford South; West Ham
  • Thirteen marginal parliamentary constituencies with significant Muslim voting potential: Bradford West, Rochdale, Glasgow Govan, Brent North, Enfield Southgate, Hendon, Harrow West, Watford, Colne Valley, Oldham East & Saddleworth, Wimbledon, Finchley & Golders Green, Hammersmith & Fulham
4 The Muslim News, May 25 2001, ‘Over 200 Muslim Councillors’, By Hamed Chapman and Ahmed Versi
  • 217 Muslim councillors elected in the May 2000 local government elections (of a total of 25,000 councillors UK-wide).
5 The Guardian, June 19, 2002, British Muslims series, ‘Wake-up call for party that took votes for granted’
  • 84% of the Bangladeshi vote and 86% of the Pakistani vote went to the Labour Party five years ago. In Bradford West, a majority of the local Pakistani population, some 61%, put a cross next to the name of a Tory candidate rather than Labour as Muslims voted for a fellow Muslim rather than for a political organization.


X. Religious Discrimination

1 Home Office Research Study 220, ‘Religious discrimination in England and Wales’, by Paul Weller, Alice Feldman & Kingsley Pudman, February 2001
  • Survey based on 628 returned postal questionnaires and 156 meetings. 70 questionnaires were completed by Muslim organisations
  • [Endless complainers and misusing human rights and equality laws] A consistently higher level of unfair treatment was reported by Muslim organisations than by most other religious groups; unfair treatment in every aspect of education, employment, housing, law and order, and in all the local government services covered by the questionnaire.
2 Islam Awareness Week survey conducted by YouGov, November 2002. Sample size 1900
  • 56% agree that “members of Britain’s Muslim minority often suffer from unfair discrimination”.


X. Hajj & Umra Travel

1 Foreign & Commonwealth Office – Advice to British Hajjis – January 2002
  • Every year, around 20,000 British Muslims travel to Makkah for Hajj

XI. Halal meat and food consumption

1 Meat & Livestock Commission – press release October 2001 on ‘Muslim Lamb Campaign’
  • Although Muslims make up just five per cent of the population they consume an estimated 20 per cent of all lamb and mutton produced in Britain.


XII. Mosques

1 ‘Religions in the UK – Directory 2001 -2003; Editor Paul Weller, Director of the Multi-Faith Centre at the University of Derby; section on ‘Muslims in the United Kingdom’
  • In England and Wales the Registrar General lists 584 mosques for 1999 which are certified as places of worship”. The Directory has a listing of about 440 mosques
2 The Salaam portal The Salaam Mosque database can also be accessed by a WAP phone � enter wap.salaam
  • Database of over 900 mosques, with postcode search facility.


XIII. Charities


1 The Salaam portal
  • Database of about 100 UK registered charities.

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